"The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."
[Nuremberg Code, 1947]
"Human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information. [ Code of Federal Regulations 45 CFR 46.102 (f)]
On October 30, 2001, the National Human Research Protection Advisory Committee (NHRPAC) signed off on recommendations redefining the term "human subject" in an effort to accommodate research that invades people's privacy by declaring that "human subjects" are only those "who interact personally with research investigators."